public exhibitions, usually temporary, of works of art. Art exhibitions are a fundamental way of introducing the viewer to painting, sculpture, and graphic arts (both contemporary art and artistic heritage). Sometimes art exhibitions are organized to sell works of art. Art exhibitions can be international, national or regional (in the USSR they exist at all levels of the Union, republic, oblast and others). They can be fixed or traveling, personal exhibitions or group and collective exhibitions. Art exhibitions can be organized periodically, often annually or every two years. Works exhibited at art exhibitions are often selected on the basis of some distinctive characteristics.
The works can be chosen based on the participating artists, who can be members of an art academy or can be students of art schools or amateur artists. Artists can also belong to a particular art group. Works of art can also be grouped on the basis of type or genre (paintings, sculptures, prints, portraits, landscapes), as well as on the basis of themes (so-called thematic exhibitions) and art trends. Museum art exhibitions are of great importance, both those devoted to the work of an artist and thematic ones, which use works that have been reserved or loaned through exchanges with other museums, as well as those that exhibit new acquisitions. A special commission (jury) selected by the participants in the exhibitions or commissioned selects the works by theme and quality and awards the prizes. Some exhibitions take place without a jury. The broader functions are carried out by an exhibition committee that does all the work of the organization. He obtains works for the art exhibition, sets up the exhibitions, publishes catalogs and guides, organizes guided tours and conferences, etc. For many art exhibitions, especially thematic ones, an exhibition plan is drawn up according to the theme and ideological content of the exhibition.
The first art exhibitions were public exhibitions of works of art in ancient Greece (from the 6th century BC), in Italy in the 15th and 16th centuries during festive processions, and in Holland and Flanders in the 17th century in fairs. and markets. In France, the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris, which first presented exhibitions of its members’ work in 1653, began organizing exhibitions at the Louvre in 1699. In the 18th century, art academies held regular exhibitions . from other countries (including the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts since 1760). In the 19th century, art exhibitions became the main form of art participation in public life and the scene of the struggle between ideologically progressive and regressive artistic trends. At the end of the 19th century, in addition to the official academic exhibitions, unofficial exhibitions were held, for example, the two exhibitions of paintings by G. Courbet – “Realism” in 1855 and “The Hall of the Rejected” in 1863 – both held in France. There were also public exhibition associations, such as the National Society of Fine Arts founded in France in 1890 and the Sezessionen, which began to be organized in Germany and Austria in 1892. Some of them opposed academic and salon art with a realistic and realistic program. research of new means of artistic expression. In Russia in the 19th century, the most progressive exhibitions were organized by the peredvizhniki (the “vagabonds”, an artistic movement) in 1871. A sharp increase in the number of art exhibitions in the late 19th and early 20th centuries reflects nature. complex and contradictory of Russian art at that time. There were exhibitions by groups such as the World of Art, the Alliance of Russian Artists and The Rascal of Painting. The growing interest in the study of the national artistic heritage was reflected in the historical and artistic exhibitions of portraits held in 1905 in Saint Petersburg.